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The knee joint includes the tibiofemoral, patellofemoral and superior tibiofibular joints. There are two menisci which are semilunar-shaped discs of fibrocartilage between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus. Their main functions are shock absorption and stability enhancement. There are many ligaments to provide stability and prevent excessive motion. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are the key ligaments for stabilization of the knee joint.

Common problems | Anterior cruciate ligament ( ACL ) tear | Chondromalacia patella
Common problems
With age, cartilage thins, ability of tissue to stretch declines, and production of synovial fluid in the joint capsule decreases. Poor posture, over-use, force impact, and acute sports injury all apply abnormal forces to the knee joint. These all progress over time and can result in chondromalacia and osteoarthritis. The ACL and PCL are ligaments inside the knee capsule. Sudden, unexpected anterior-posterior or rotating forces may tear these ligaments. MCL and LCL tears occur when the knee suffers excessive valgus -varus stress or torsion. The medial meniscus is more easily injured than lateral meniscus. Medial meniscus injuries are also usually combined with MCL and ACL tears.

The knee orthosis offers three levels of support: primary, intensive, and extreme. There are also three functions: prevent, protect, and assist.